"The grim facts of life in 1914, as in the 1930's, were than any clever scheme for diverting Germany into a life and death struggle with Russia required first of all the elimination of France as an effective great power. The Franco-Russian alliances of 1890 and 1935 were a simple recognition of this elementary fact; and the policy of Germany in 1914 and from 1939 to 1941 is a recognition of it also. In 1914 France was saved in the first place because there was an alliance with Russia; and the absence of such an alliance in 1940 is a sufficient explanation of the French defeat in that year." Seaman, L.C.B., From Vienna to Versailles 184-85 (1955, Harper & Row Publishers, New York)